- Prepositions are zee abyss of langvage. - Henry Kahane, as quoted by Susan Schmerling
Short URL: http://tiny.cc/prepwiki
This wiki documents a hierarchical set of coarse, unlexicalized supersense categories for English prepositions described in
- Nathan Schneider and Vivek Srikumar, Jena D. Hwang, and Martha Palmer (2015). A hierarchy with, of, and for preposition supersenses. Proc. of the 9th Linguistic Annotation Workshop.
and used to annotate the corpus described in
- Nathan Schneider, Jena D. Hwang, Vivek Srikumar, Meredith Green, Abhijit Suresh, Kathryn Conger, Tim O’Gorman, and Martha Palmer (2016). A corpus of preposition supersenses. Proc. of the 10th Linguistic Annotation Workshop.
It was developed with reference to:
- The Preposition Project (TPP; Litkowski & Hargraves, 2005), a lexicon of English prepositions with fine-grained senses based off of the Oxford Dictionary of English (ODE). Our primary attention has been devoted to the TPP senses for the 34 prepositions included in the annotated corpus used in the SemEval-2007 shared task (Litkowski & Hargraves, 2007).
- An inventory of preposition relations that clusters the TPP senses for the 34 main prepositions into 32 unlexicalized groupings (SR; Srikumar & Roth, 2013).
- The inventory of thematic roles in VerbNet (VN; Kipper et al., 2008). Unlike SR, VN is hierarchical (Bonial et al., 2011), as can be seen in the annotation guidelines (though they are somewhat out of date).
Most pages on this wiki describe individual TPP senses. They include descriptions and metadata from the TPP database and from a spreadsheet provided by Vivek Srikumar with additional comments and mappings to SR groupings. Several senses are new to this wiki; some of these are for a handful of new prepositions. All told, some 100 prepositions are mapped to at least one possible supersense.
Category pages on the wiki indicate groupings, including the supersense tag (SST) groupings proposed here, as well as SR categories. Some of the SST pages are mapped to (approximately) corresponding categories in the SR, VN, AMR, and Vestergaard inventories of semantic functions/roles/relations. Each category page name has a prefix indicating which inventory it belongs to.
Credits: The effort behind this wiki, including extensive discussions about and pilot corpus annotations with the proposed supersense categories, was coordinated by Nathan Schneider and initially described in Chapter 5 of his dissertation. There were numerous other contributors at CMU (Archna Bhatia, Carlos Ramírez, Yulia Tsvetkov, Michael Mordowanec, Matt Gardner, Spencer Onuffer, Nora Kazour), CU-Boulder (Jena Hwang, Martha Palmer, Tim O'Gorman, Katie Conger, Meredith Green), and Stanford/University of Utah (Vivek Srikumar). Our understanding of prepositions and semantic resources has benefited from conversations with Ken Litkowski, Michael Ellsworth, Ed Hovy, Lori Levin, and Orin Hargraves.
Senses and Supersenses
- 881 total senses
- 102 X-senses added here
- 70 XPrep senses: 's X1, 's X10, 's X11, 's X12, 's X13, 's X14, 's X2, 's X3, 's X4, 's X5, 's X6, 's X7, 's X8, 's X9, Afterward X1, Ago X1, All of X1, Apart X1, Apart X2, As if X1, As long as X1, As long as X2, As opposed to X1, As per X1, As soon as X1, As though X1, At all X1, At least X1, At most X1, Away X1, Away X2, Back X1, Back X2, Back X3, Back X4, Back and forth X1, Beforehand X1, Downstairs X1, Fewer than X1, Greater than X1, Home X1, In accordance with X1, In hopes of X1, In hopes to X1, In search of X1, In the middle of X1, Indoors X1, Just about X1, Less than X1, More than X1 … further results
- 539 with a supersense
- 342 without a supersense
- 83 senses missing examples
- 102 X-senses added here
- Supersense hierarchy root (529 senses tagged with an SST in the hierarchy; excludes senses solely labeled as `)
- TPP/SemEval-07/S&R prepositions (34 types, 369 senses) including:
- 47 without a supersense
- 332 SemEval-07 senses
- 27 X-senses added here: About X1, Around X1, As X1, As X2, As X3, As X4, As X5, At X1, At X2, By X1, By X2, Down X1, Down X2, In X1, In X2, In X3, In X4, Like X1, Like X2, Like X3, Of X1, Over X1, Over X2, To X1, To X2, To X3, With X1
- 10 senses new in PDEP: Above 10(n), Across 3(n), After 11(n), Along 4(n), Around 6(n), As 3(n), As 4(n), By 23(n), Inside 6(n), With 1(1)-1
- Special topics
Discussions & Planning
- Sense discussions
- Category discussions
- Wiki TODO
- Multilingual annotation
- S&R categories
- VerbNet hierarchy root
- AMR roles/relations mapped to preposition supersenses
- Vestergaard hierarchy root
- Harvesting Supersenses for PDEP
Current Supersense Inventory
Click on a category in the table to see its direct TPP senses and daughter subcategories.