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Prepositions are zee abyss of langvage. - Henry Kahane, as quoted by Susan Schmerling

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This wiki documents a hierarchical set of coarse, unlexicalized supersense categories for English prepositions described in

Nathan Schneider and Vivek Srikumar, Jena D. Hwang, and Martha Palmer (2015). A hierarchy with, of, and for preposition supersenses. Proc. of the 9th Linguistic Annotation Workshop.

and used to annotate the corpus described in

Nathan Schneider, Jena D. Hwang, Vivek Srikumar, Meredith Green, Abhijit Suresh, Kathryn Conger, Tim O’Gorman, and Martha Palmer (2016). A corpus of preposition supersenses. Proc. of the 10th Linguistic Annotation Workshop.

It was developed with reference to:

Most pages on this wiki describe individual TPP senses. They include descriptions and metadata from the TPP database and from a spreadsheet provided by Vivek Srikumar with additional comments and mappings to SR groupings. Several senses are new to this wiki; some of these are for a handful of new prepositions. All told, some 100 prepositions are mapped to at least one possible supersense.

Category pages on the wiki indicate groupings, including the supersense tag (SST) groupings proposed here, as well as SR categories. Some of the SST pages are mapped to (approximately) corresponding categories in the SR, VN, AMR, and Vestergaard inventories of semantic functions/roles/relations. Each category page name has a prefix indicating which inventory it belongs to.

Credits: The effort behind this wiki, including extensive discussions about and pilot corpus annotations with the proposed supersense categories, was coordinated by Nathan Schneider and initially described in Chapter 5 of his dissertation. There were numerous other contributors at CMU (Archna Bhatia, Carlos Ramírez, Yulia Tsvetkov, Michael Mordowanec, Matt Gardner, Spencer Onuffer, Nora Kazour), CU-Boulder (Jena Hwang, Martha Palmer, Tim O'Gorman, Katie Conger, Meredith Green), and Stanford/University of Utah (Vivek Srikumar). Our understanding of prepositions and semantic resources has benefited from conversations with Ken Litkowski, Michael Ellsworth, Ed Hovy, Lori Levin, and Orin Hargraves.

Top-level Navigation

Senses and Supersenses

Discussions & Planning

Other Systems

Current Supersense Inventory

Click on a category in the table to see its direct TPP senses and daughter subcategories.

Current proposed hierarchy of supersenses.
Participant Circumstance Configuration
Experiencer Stimulus Affector Co-Participant Undergoer Manner Place Temporal Attribute Explanation
Co-Agent Accompanier Approximator Age Purpose Elements
Agent Co-Patient Comparison/Contrast ClockTimeCxn Function Instance
Causer Co-Theme Contour DeicticTime Reciprocation Possessor
Creator Instrument Destination Duration Quantity
Course EndTime Species
Transit Frequency Superset
Via RelativeTime Whole
Means Direction StartTime
Activity Donor/Speaker Time
Beneficiary EndState
Patient Extent
ProfessionalAspect Goal
Theme InitialLocation
Topic Location